A wireless network might support 4G or 3G while some phones are built for just one of those. Your location might only let your phone get 2G speeds, or you might see the term 5G thrown around when talking about smartphones.Since 1G was launched in the early 1980s, a new wireless mobile telecommunications technology has been released roughly every10 years. All of them refer to the technology used by the mobile carrier and device itself; they have different speeds and features that improve on the generation prior to it.
While an acronym is sometimes technobabble the layperson needn’t master, others are important for everyday understanding. You might want to know how these technologies differ and how it applies to you when you’re buying a phone, getting coverage details, or subscribing to a mobile carrier.
1G: Voice Only
Remember analog “brick phones” and “bag phones” way, way back in the day? Cell phones began with 1G in the 1980s.1G is an analog technology and the phones generally had poor battery life and voice quality was poor, without much security, and would sometimes experience dropped calls.The max speed of 1G is 2.4 Kbps.
2G: SMS & MMS
Cell phones received their first major upgrade when they went from 1G to 2G. This leap took place in 1991 on GSM networks first, in Finland, and effectively took cell phones from analog to digital.The 2G telephone technology introduced call and text encryption, plus data services like SMS, picture messages, and MMS. Although 2G has replaced 1G and is superseded by the technologies described below, it’s still used around the world.
The max speed of 2G with General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is 50 Kbps or 1 Mbps with Enhanced Data Rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE).
2.5G & 2.75G: Finally Data, but Slow
Before making the major leap from 2G to 3G wireless networks, the lesser-known 2.5G and 2.75G was an interim standard that bridged the gap 2.5G introducing a new packet switching technique that was more efficient than what was previously being used.This led to 2.75G, which provides a theoretical threefold capacity increase. 2.75G with EDGE began in the US with GSM networks (AT&T being the first).
3G: More Data! Video Calling & Mobile Internet
3G networks were introduced in 1998 and stand for the next generation in this series; the third-generation.3G ushered in faster data-transmission speeds, so you could use your cell phone in more data-demanding ways like for video calling and mobile internet.Like 2G, 3G evolved into 3.5G and 3.75G as more features were introduced in order to bring about 4G.The max speed of 3G is estimated to be around 2 Mbps for non-moving devices and 384 Kbps in moving vehicles. The theoretical max speed for HSPA+ is 21.6 Mbps.
4G: The Current Standard
The fourth generation of networks is called 4G, which was released in 2008. It supports mobile web access like 3G but also gaming services, HD mobile TV, video conferencing, 3D TV, and other things that demand higher speeds.With the implementation of 4G, some 3G features are removed, such as the spread spectrum radio technology; others are added to higher bit rates due to smart antennas.The max speed of a 4G network when the device is moving is 100 Mbps or 1 Gbps for low mobility communication like when stationary or walking.
5G: Coming Soon
5G is a not-yet-implemented wireless technology that’s intended to improve on 4G. 5G promises significantly faster data rates, higher connection density, and much lower latency, among other improvements.